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Course Code:18CS53 
CIE Marks:40
SEE Marks:60
Number of Contact Hours/Week 3:2:0 
Total Number of Contact Hours:50 
Exam Hours:03

Course Learning Objectives: This course (18CS53) will enable students to:

• Provide a strong foundation in database concepts, technology, and practice.
• Practice SQL programming through a variety of database problems.
• Demonstrate the use of concurrency and transactions in database
• Design and build database applications for real world problems.

Module 1 

Introduction to Databases: Introduction, Characteristics of database approach, Advantages
of using the DBMS approach, History of database applications. Overview of Database
Languages and Architectures: Data Models, Schemas, and Instances. Three schema
architecture and data independence, database languages, and interfaces, The Database System
environment. Conceptual Data Modelling using Entities and Relationships: Entity types,
Entity sets, attributes, roles, and structural constraints, Weak entity types, ER diagrams,
examples, Specialization and Generalization.
Textbook 1:Ch 1.1 to 1.8, 2.1 to 2.6, 3.1 to 3.10

Module 2

Relational Model: Relational Model Concepts, Relational Model Constraints and relational
database schemas, Update operations, transactions, and dealing with constraint violations.
Relational Algebra: Unary and Binary relational operations, additional relational operations
(aggregate, grouping, etc.) Examples of Queries in relational algebra. Mapping Conceptual
Design into a Logical Design: Relational Database Design using ER-to-Relational mapping.
SQL: SQL data definition and data types, specifying constraints in SQL, retrieval queries in
SQL, INSERT, DELETE, and UPDATE statements in SQL, Additional features of SQL.
Textbook 1: Ch4.1 to 4.5, 5.1 to 5.3, 6.1 to 6.5, 8.1; Textbook 2: 3.5

Module 3

SQL : Advances Queries: More complex SQL retrieval queries, Specifying constraints as
assertions and action triggers, Views in SQL, Schema change statements in SQL. Database
Application Development: Accessing databases from applications, An introduction to
JDBC, JDBC classes and interfaces, SQLJ, Stored procedures, Case study: The internet
Bookshop. Internet Applications: The three-Tier application architecture, The presentation
layer, The Middle Tier
Textbook 1: Ch7.1 to 7.4; Textbook 2: 6.1 to 6.6, 7.5 to 7.7.

Module 4

Normalization: Database Design Theory – Introduction to Normalization using Functional
and Multivalued Dependencies: Informal design guidelines for relation schema, Functional
Dependencies, Normal Forms based on Primary Keys, Second and Third Normal Forms,
Boyce-Codd Normal Form, Multivalued Dependency and Fourth Normal Form, Join
Dependencies and Fifth Normal Form. Normalization Algorithms: Inference Rules,
Equivalence, and Minimal Cover, Properties of Relational Decompositions, Algorithms for
Relational Database Schema Design, Nulls, Dangling tuples, and alternate Relational
Designs, Further discussion of Multivalued dependencies and 4NF, Other dependencies and
Normal Forms
Textbook 1: Ch14.1 to 14.7, 15.1 to 15.6

Module 5

Transaction Processing: Introduction to Transaction Processing, Transaction and System
concepts, Desirable properties of Transactions, Characterizing schedules based on
recoverability, Characterizing schedules based on Serializability, Transaction support in
SQL. Concurrency Control in Databases: Two-phase locking techniques for Concurrency
control, Concurrency control based on Timestamp ordering, Multiversion Concurrency
control techniques, Validation Concurrency control techniques, Granularity of Data items and
Multiple Granularity Locking. Introduction to Database Recovery Protocols: Recovery
Concepts, NO-UNDO/REDO recovery based on Deferred update, Recovery techniques based
on immediate update, Shadow paging, Database backup and recovery from catastrophic
Textbook 1: 20.1 to 20.6, 21.1 to 21.7, 22.1 to 22.4, 22.7.

Course Outcomes: The student will be able to :

• Identify, analyze and define database objects, enforce integrity constraints on a database using RDBMS.
• Use Structured Query Language (SQL) for database manipulation.
• Design and build simple database systems
• Develop application to interact with databases.
Full Notes

Question Paper Pattern:

• The question paper will have ten questions.
• Each full Question consisting of 20 marks
• There will be 2 full questions (with a maximum of four sub questions) from each module.
• Each full question will have sub questions covering all the topics under a module.
• The students will have to answer 5 full questions, selecting one full question from each module.


1. Fundamentals of Database Systems, Ramez Elmasri and Shamkant B. Navathe, 7th Edition, 2017, Pearson.
2. Database management systems, Ramakrishnan, and Gehrke, 3rd Edition, 2014, McGraw Hill

Reference Books:

1. Silberschatz Korth and Sudharshan, Database System Concepts, 6th Edition, Mc-GrawHill, 2013.
2. Coronel, Morris, and Rob, Database Principles Fundamentals of Design, Implementation and Management, Cengage Learning 2012.