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Course Code 18CV823 
CIE Marks 40
Teaching Hours/Week(L:T:P) (3:0:0) 
SEE Marks 60
Credits 03 
Exam Hours 03

Course Learning Objectives: This course will enable students to

1. Gain knowledge of about advanced topics of foundation design and analyses, supplementing their
comprehensive knowledge acquired in basic foundation engineering course.
2. Develop profound understanding of shallow and deep foundation analyses.
3. Develop understanding of choice of foundation design parameters.
4. Learn about cause and effect of dynamic loads on foundation.

Module -1

General bearing capacity equation – Terzaghi’s, Brinch Hansen’s and Mayerhof’s analyses, bearing capacity of footings according to BIS, eccentrically loaded footing, footing on layered soil, Settlement of shallow Foundations: Immediate, consolidation, & differential settlements. Principles of design of footing, Proportioning of footings for equal settlement.

Module -2

Design of combined footings by Rigid method, Combined footings (rectangular & trapezoidal), strap footings. Types of rafts, bearing capacity & settlements of raft foundation, Design of raft foundation – Conventional rigid method, Elastic methods, Coefficient of sub-grade reaction, IS code (IS-2950) procedure.

Module -3

Introduction Necessity of pile foundations, Classification, Load bearing capacity of single pile by Static
formula, Dynamic formula, Pile load test and Penetration tests. Introduction, Pile groups, group action of piles in sand and clay, group efficiency of piles, settlement of piles, negative skin friction, laterally loaded piles and under reamed piles.

Module -4

Well Foundations: Introduction, Different shapes and characteristics of wells. Components of well foundation. Forces acting on well foundation. Sinking of wells. Causes and remedies of tilts and shifts.
Drilled Piers & Caissons: Introduction, construction, advantages and disadvantages of drilled piers. Design of open, pneumatic and floating caissons. Advantages and disadvantages of floating caissons.

Module -5

Machine Foundations: Introduction, free and forced vibrations, Types of Machine foundations, degrees of freedom of a block foundation, general criteria for design of machine foundation, vibration analysis of a machine foundation, determination of natural frequency, vibration isolation and control.

Course outcomes: After studying this course, students will be able to:

1. Estimate the size of isolated and combined foundations to satisfy bearing capacity and settlement criteria.
2. Estimate the load carrying capacity and settlement of single piles and pile groups including laterally loaded piles.
3. Understand the basics of analysis and design principles of well foundation, drilled piers and caissons.
4. Understand basics of analysis and design principles of machine foundations.

Question paper pattern:

  • The question paper will have ten full questions carrying equal marks.
  • Each full question will be for 20 marks.
  • There will be two full questions (with a maximum of four sub- questions) from each module.
  • Each full question will have sub- question covering all the topics under a module.
  • The students will have to answer five full questions, selecting one full question from each module.


1. Punmia B.C., “Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering,Laxmi Publications Co., India.
2. Donald P. Coduto, “Geotechnical Engineering Principles & Practices”, Prentice-hall of India Ltd, India.
3. Murthy V.N.S., “Geotechnical Engineering: Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Engineering”, CRC Press, New York.

Reference Books:

1. Bowles J.E., “Foundation Analysis and Design”, McGraw Hill Pub. Co. New York.
2. Swami Saran, “Analysis and Design of Substructures”, Oxford & IBH Pub. Co. Pvt. Ltd., India.
3. R.B. Peck, W.E. Hanson & T.H. Thornburn, “Foundation Engineering”, Wiley Eastern Ltd., India.
4. Braja, M. Das, “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”, Cengage Learning, India.
5. Bureau of Indian Standards: IS-1904, IS-6403, IS-8009, IS-2950, IS-2911 and all other relevant codes.