# POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL (18EE81)

## POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

### Course Learning Objectives:

• To describe various levels of controls in power systems and the vulnerability of the system.
• To explain components, architecture and configuration of SCADA.
• To explain basic generator control loops, functions of Automatic generation control, speed governors and mathematical models of Automatic Load Fr equen cy Con trol
• To explain automatic generation control, voltage and reactive power control in an in terconnected power system.
• To explain reliability and contingency analysis, state estimation and related issues.

### Module-1

Introduction: Operating States of Power System, Objectives of Control, Key Concepts of Reliable Operation, Preventive and Emergency Controls, Energy Management Cen te rs. R1 Supervisory Control and Data acquisition (SCADA): Introduction, components, application in Power System, basic functions and advantages. Building blocks of SCADA system, components of RTU, communication subsystem, IED functional block diagram. R2 Classification of SCADA system: Single master–single remote; Single master–multiple RTU; Multiple master–multiple RTUs; and Single master, multiple submaster, multiple remote. R2

### Module-2

Automatic Generation Control (AGC): Introduction, Schematic diagram of load frequency and excitation voltage regulators of turbo generators, Load frequency control (Single area case), Turbine speed governing system, Model of speed governing system, Turbine model, Generator load model, Complete block diagram of representation of load frequency control of an isolated power system, Steady state analysis, Control area concept, Proportional plus Integral Controller. T1

### Module-3

Automatic Generation Control in Interconnected Power system: Two area load frequency control, Optimal (Two area) load frequency control by state variable, Automatic voltage control, Load frequency control with generation rate constraints (GRCs), Speed governor dead band and its effect on AGC, Digital LF Controllers, Decentralized control. T1

### Module-4

Control of Voltage and Reactive Power: Introduction, Generation and absorption of reactive power, Relation between voltage, power and reactive power at a node, Methods of voltage control: i. Injection of reactive power, Shunt capacitors and reactors, Series capacitors, Synchronous compensators, Series injection. ii Tap changing transformers. Combined use of tap changing transformers and reactive power injection, Booster transformers, Phase shift transformers, Voltage collapse. T3

### Module-5

Power System Security: Introduction, Factors affecting power system security, Contingency Analysis, Linear Sensitivity Factors, AC power flow methods, Contingency Selection and Ranking. T2 State estimation of Power Systems: Introduction, Linear Least Square Estimation. T2

#### Course Outcomes: At the end of the course the student will be able to:

• Describe various levels of controls in power systems, architecture and configuration of SCADA.
• Develop and analyze mathematical models of Automatic Load Frequency Control.
• Develop mathematical model of Automatic Generation Control in Interconnected Power system
• Discuss the Control of Voltage , Reactive Power and Voltage collapse.
• Explain security, contingency analysis, state estimation of power systems.

#### Question paper pattern:

• The question paper will have ten questions.
• Each full question is for 20 marks.
• There will be 2 full questions (with a maximum of three sub questions in one full question) from each module.
• Each full question with sub questions will cover the contents under a module.
• Students will have to answer 5 full questions, selecting one full question from each module.

#### Text Book

1 Modern Power System Analysis D. P. Kothari McGraw Hill 4th Edition, 2011
2 Power Generation Operation and Control Allen J Wood etal Wiley 2nd Edition,2003
3 Electric Power Systems B M Weedy, B J Cory Wiley 4th Edition, 2012

#### Reference Books

1 Computer-Aided Power System Analysis G. L. Kusic CRC Press 2nd Edition.2010
2 Power System SCADA and Smart Grid Mini S Thom and John D. McDonald CRC Press 2015
3 Power System Stability and Control Kundur McGraw Hill 8th Reprint, 2009